Status of India in Science and Technology as reflected in its Publication Output in Scopus International Database,
1997-2007

 

 

B.M. Gupta & S.M. Dhawan

 

This section seeks to provide current indicators on Indian science and technology, thereby enabling planners in S&T to measure and evaluate the country’s progress in research.  The study uses 11 years publications data in science and technology on India and other top 19 productive countries. Their publications data has been drawn from Scopus database covering the period 1997 to 2007. The study examines the country’s performance on several measures including the country’s publication share in world research output and country publication share in various subjects in the national context and in the global context. It also determines patterns of research communication in core Indian and foreign journals, geographical distribution, share of international collaborative papers at the national level as well as across subjects. In addition it profiles high productivity institutions, scientists and cited papers. The study compares similarities of Indian research profile with 19 other top productive countries. The findings of the study should be of special significance to the planners & policy-makers.  

 

Introduction

Science and technology pursuit has been a major planning objective of the country, identified on purpose to initiate, advance and accelerate national development in all sectors of the economy. Consequent upon this policy initiative, India has been able to usher significant growth in its capacity and capability in basic, applied, and developmental research in science and technology. Its S&T infrastructure has grown large, comprising of more than 300 universities, 400 research laboratories, 13 institutes of national importance, and 1300 in-house industrial R&D units, besides several other government departments, private, international and non-profitable institutions. Correspondingly, investments in S&T have also grown many-fold, from Rs.760.5 crore in 1980 to about Rs.16,361 crore in 2005-06. The total annual expenditure on science and technology is now close to 0.8% of the Gross National Product (GNP). If the government's vision at present is to be believed, the size of the education sector will grow almost 10-fold during the current XI Five-Year Plan. Given these projections in the higher education sector in the country, S&T infrastructure in India is certain to witness significant expansion too in the near future.

Keeping in view the overall size of the S&T infrastructure in the country and its steady growth in S&T investments, it is desirable that India comes out with a program to measure and monitor its performance in S&T on a regular basis. This task inevitably requires building appropriate indicators of S&T performance, designed to understand the dynamics of research at institutional, sectoral, geographic and at subject level. Besides, indicators are required for depicting how Indian science is performing vis-à-vis select similarly placed countries and against countries from the developed world. S&T indicators are also required for understanding how collaborative research at national and international level is used to improve the quality and capability building in the country.

Several bibliometric studies have so far attempted to look at indicators as required for understanding the status of science and technology in India1-7. They had focused on developing indicators on institutional productivity, national productivity, scattering of research across Indian & foreign journals, quality of research, and nature of collaboration, etc.  Another important study8 by the authors to this paper, conducted recently under the sponsorship of the Office of the Principle Scientific Advisor (PSA) to the Government of India, had reported several important indicators to understand the progress in Indian science and technology, covering the period 1985-1986, 1995-2006 and 2001-2002. The data on these S&T indicators, developed mainly on publications output for select and short periods, is old and outdated. For understanding the current status of India’s S&T, there is a need to produce latest S&T indicators, based on publications data for comparatively longer duration, and hence this study. The present study seeks to build Indian S&T indicators by examining and analyzing 11-years continuous S&T publications data from India for the purpose.   

 

Objectives

The main objective of this study is to produce current Indian S&T indicators by measuring progress of research in India using publications output data. Such indicators are of special significance to the planners & policy-makers in the country. In this regard the study aims at:

(i) analyzing India’s current publications rate and its global publications share in comparison with select leading countries,

(ii) comparing and understanding similarities between India’s national research profile and of select leading productive countries;

(iii) determining most productive and weak subject areas of research in Indian science and technology;

(iv) determining India’s share of international collaborative papers in its total output,  leading co-author countries collaborating with India as well as its publications share across main subject areas,

(v) determining most productive and weak  geographical regions, and

(vi) understanding characteristics of highly productive institutions, scientists and of  cited papers.

 

Methodology and Data Source 

This study uses Scopus database for drawing publications data on India and select countries leading in science and technology. Scopus is an international multidisciplinary database indexing over 15000 international peer reviewed journals in science and technology, besides more than 500 international conference/seminar proceedings. So far Scopus is the single largest international multidisciplinary database in the world. Given its wider coverage of journals and conference/seminar proceedings from developed and developing countries (including from India and China) compared to another international multidisciplinary database such as Web of Science database, the use of Scopus is expected to generate a better picture of Indian S&T indicators and hence its selection for this study.

The study uses 11 years publications data from 1997 to 2007 on India and other top 19 productive countries for developing S&T indicators. The study has purposely used larger data set covering 11 publication years in order to ensure that the study reflects a more accurate and reliable results as possible.  In addition, it used citations data for measuring quality and visibility of Indian research output. Three years citations window has been used for computing average citations per paper for all S&T papers published by India from 1997 to 2004. But for papers published in 2005 we had to two years citations window and one-year citations window for papers published in 2006. The study has used a number of absolute publications, citation and collaborative measures for developing S&T indicators as needed for depicting India’s status in science and technology from 1997 to 2007. 

 

Analysis

India’s Publication Share and Rank in World:  India ranks 12th among the top 20 productive countries in science and technology, with its global publications share of 2.11% as computed from cumulative world publications data for 1997-2007 (Table 1). The other countries in the top 20 list that contributed world share similar to that of India are Russia, Spain, and Australia (in the range 2.0% to 2.50%). In overall, the global publication shares of the top 20 productive countries in S&T from 1997-2007 ranged from 1.03% to 23.44%. The United States tops the list with its global publication share of 23.44%, and followed far behind are United Kingdom, Japan, China, Germany, and France (their global publication share ranging 4.5% to 7.4%). The countries that rank between 13th and 20th positions are Netherlands, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Brazil, Poland and Belgium with their global publication share ranging 1% to 1.9% (Table 1).

Declining Global Publication Share of Developed Countries: The publications activity of most developed countries is gradually declining over time in global context. This is evident from declining trend in their global publications share figures for 1997, 2002 and 2007. In particular, the developed countries that have shown decline in their global publication share are many, including United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, France, Russia, Netherlands and Sweden. The countries from the developed world that have however, shown rise in their global publication share over time are relatively few, including Italy, Australia, Spain, Canada and Poland (Table 1).

 

Table1: Productivity and World Publication Share of Top 20 Productive Countries   in Science & Technology

S.No

Country

National Publication Output

Percentage Share Of National Publication Output in their total output

World Publication Rank

1997

2002

2007

97-07

1997

2002

2007

97-07

97

02

07

97-07

1

USA

314,029

314,530

357,635

3,584,564

27.72

23.79

20.65

23.44

1

1

1

1

2

UK

124,776

93,234

124,776

1,130,827

11.01

7.05

7.20

7.40

2

2

3

2

3

Japan

87,750

91,655

98,211

1,057,233

7.74

6.93

5.67

6.91

3

3

4

3

4

Germany

75,296

80,514

97,200

958,647

6.65

6.09

5.61

6.27

4

4

5

5

5

China

31,236

62,256

194,241

993,717

2.76

4.71

11.21

6.50

8

5

2

4

6

France

56,310

57,162

71,984

691,720

4.97

4.32

4.16

4.52

5

6

6

6

7

Canada

40,236

41,799

62,859

525,931

3.55

3.16

3.63

3.44

6

8

7

7

8

Italy

38,128

41,875

59,520

510,298

3.37

3.17

3.44

3.34

7

7

8

8

9

Spain

25,049

30,409

46,808

372,277

2.21

2.30

2.70

2.43

10

10

9

9

10

Russia

31,040

32,431

30,660

355,564

2.74

2.45

1.77

2.33

9

9

14

10

11

Australia

23,059

27,410

42,558

337,376

2.04

2.07

2.46

2.21

11

11

11

11

12

India

21,058

25,990

44,135

322,956

1.86

1.97

2.55

2.11

13

12

10

12

13

Netherlands

22,094

23,616

33,299

291134

1.95

1.79

1.92

1.90

12

13

13

13

14

South Korea

11,933

19,651

38,067

257,034

1.05

1.49

2.20

1.68

16

14

12

14

15

Sweden

17,360

17,173

22,315

212529

1.53

1.30

1.29

1.39

15

15

18

15

16

Switzerland

15,507

16,034

23,704

207,737

1.37

1.21

1.37

1.36

16

16

17

16

17

Taiwan

11,575

14,539

27,410

192,106

1.02

1.10

1.58

1.26

17

19

16

18

18

Brazil

10,289

15,804

28,819

194,024

0.91

1.20

1.66

1.27

20

17

15

17

19

Poland

11,328

15,037

19,686

177,288

1.00

1.14

1.14

1.16

19

18

19

19

20

Belgium

11,343

12,659

18,486

157,930

1.00

0.96

1.07

1.03

18

20

20

20

 

Rising Global Publication Share of Developing Countries: All developing countries in top 20 productive countries list have shown rising trend in their global publications share over time. China, in particular, has shown strikingly significant rise in its publications share, rising from 2.76% to 4.71%, and to 11.21% in the years 1997, 2002, and 2007 respectively. Correspondingly China improved its world ranking from 8th position in 1997 to 5th in 2002 and to 2nd in 2007. South Korea has also improved its world share (from 1.05% to 1.49% and to 2.20%), Taiwan (from 1.02% to 1.10% and to 1.58%), and Brazil (from 0.91% to 1.20% and to 1.66%) during corresponding years. The world ranking of these three developing countries also improved: South Korea (from 16th to 14th and to 12th), Taiwan (from 17th to 19th and to 16th), and Brazil (from 20th to 17th and to 15th) during corresponding years.

India also witnessed rise in its world publications share. The shift in its global share was from 1.86% to 1.97% and to 2.55% in 1997, 2002, and 2007, respectively. Correspondingly, it improved its world ranking from 13th position in 1997 to 12th in 2002 and to 10th in 2007 (Table 1).

 

India’s Publication Growth Rate in World Context

The developed and developing countries differ significantly in their annual average publication growth rate as seen from their annual publications output data for 1997 to 2007 in S&T. It was 2.23% to 6.54% for developed countries and 7.76% to 20.96% for developing world countries. Whereas the developed countries maintained slow pace of growth in their publications output, the developing countries on the other hand have shown significantly faster growth rate (Table 2-3).
India achieved annual average growth rate in publications output at 7.76% as seen from its publications output data for 1997-2007.  China showed growth rate of 20.96% per annum, the highest amongst top 20 countries, followed by South Korea (12.49%), Brazil (10.97%), Taiwan (9.21%), and India (7.76%). Indian ranks last among the developing countries in terms of pace of growth in its publications output (Table 3).

All countries from the developing world (among top 20 productive countries) have shown growth rate of their annual publications output higher than the world average (4.41%).  The countries from the developed world (among top 20 productive countries) that have shown growth rate higher than the world average (4.41%)  during 1997-2007 include Spain (6.54%), Australia (6.39%), Poland (5.93%), Belgium (5.15%), Canada (4.73%), Italy (4.64%) and Switzerland (4.56%) (Table 3).
Growth rate of publications output by developing world countries has also changed over time. Based on publications output data for 1997-2002 and 2003-2007, it was found that Chine improved its growth rate from 15.37% to 26.54%, India from 4.31% to 11.21%, Taiwan from 4.70% to 13.71%, South Korea from 10.56% to 14.42% and Brazil from 9.05% to 12.90%. The productive developed world countries have also shown similar trend (Table 3).

 

Table 2: Annual Publications Output in Science and Technology of Select Countries

 

Publication Year

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

World

1133009

1137270

1138939

1205466

1299195

1322231

1376155

1524777

1685487

1734750

1732168

USA

314029

312392

309609

313243

309114

314530

334863

318306

343011

357832

357635

UK

88926

90710

90751

95364

90499

93234

103655

110274

118390

124248

124776

Japan

87750

88498

91229

92608

90080

91655

98597

102534

108768

107303

98211

Ger

many

75296

77970

79112

80655

80412

80514

90631

94479

101171

101207

97200

China

31236

36463

37632

45852

60936

62256

74896

111274

157893

181038

194241

France

56310

57326

58497

58526

56881

57162

63654

67060

71800

72520

71984

Canada

40236

39321

38978

39910

39072

41799

48641

53427

59653

62035

62859

Italy

38128

37525

38540

39721

40629

41875

48304

51927

55407

58722

59520

Russia

31040

32275

30983

31796

32565

32431

32987

34090

35486

31261

30660

Spain

25049

25769

27257

27540

28253

30409

35055

37944

42206

45987

46808

Aus-

tralia

23059

23915

24317

25344

26425

27410

30999

34631

37689

41129

42558

Nether-

lands

22094

22506

22086

22859

22436

23616

27035

29244

32398

33561

33299

South Korea

11933

12647

14665

16532

18557

19651

24777

29126

33767

37312

38067

Sweden

17360

17818

17725

17643

17439

17173

19747

20829

22141

22339

22315

Taiwan

11575

11907

12216

12781

14103

14539

16720

20855

23902

26098

27410

Brazil

10289

11413

12391

13388

13698

15804

18099

20252

22499

27372

28819

Poland

11328

11588

12324

13062

13784

15037

17746

19416

21059

22258

19686

Belgium

11343

12141

12161

12104

12094

12659

15022

16027

17726

18167

18486

India

21058

21698

22845

23284

24280

25990

29972

32311

36403

40980

44135

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3: Annual Average Publications Growth Rate of Select Developed and Developing Countries

Country

Annual Average Publication Growth Rate

Country

Annual Average Publication Growth Rate

97-07

97-02

03-07

97-07

97-02

03-07

World

4.41

3.18

5.64

Sweden

2.65

-0.21

5.51

United States

1.37

0.04

2.71

China

20.96

15.37

26.54

UK

3.54

1.01

6.06

India

7.76

4.31

11.21

Japan

1.23

0.89

1.57

South Korea

12.49

10.56

14.42

Germany

2.68

1.36

3.99

Belgium

5.15

2.26

8.04

France

2.56

0.32

4.81

Brazil

10.97

9.05

12.9

Italy

4.64

1.91

7.38

Taiwan

9.21

4.70

13.71

Netherlands

4.32

1.38

7.25

Russia

-0.01

0.92

-0.94

Spain

6.54

3.98

9.10

Poland

5.93

5.85

6.01

Switzerland

4.56

0.37

4.2

Canada

4.73

0.82

8.64

Australia

6.39

3.52

9.25

 

 

 

 

 

Subject Priorities of Top 20 Productive Countries as reflected in their Cumulative Publication Output during 1997-2007

Subject priorities of top 20 productive countries in research have been determined by computing their national publications share in broad disciplines including physical, engineering, life, and health sciences as defined by Scopus based on their publications output for 1997-2007. The strength of national publication share of a country in a discipline reflects its research priority in the subject comparison to other disciplines. The higher the productivity the higher priority of the country in the discipline (Table 4-5).
For example, India’s national publications share has been the highest (41.07%) in physical sciences, followed by life sciences (29.68%), engineering sciences (29.59%), and health sciences (22.06%). Given this data, one can conclude India’s order of priority in research by discipline. Its priority is the highest to physical sciences, followed by life sciences, engineering sciences, and health sciences. In the world context, India’s national publications share in physical sciences, life sciences, and engineering sciences each has been above the global average in each discipline. But in health sciences its share has been below the global average (Table 4-5).
For clarification it may be stated that according to Scopus classification physical sciences discipline includes subjects such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, earth & planetary sciences and environmental sciences. Similarly, life sciences include subjects such as agricultural & biological sciences, biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology, pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, immunology & microbiology and neurology. Engineering sciences includes subjects such as engineering, materials science, computer science, chemical engineering and energy. Health sciences include subjects such as medicine, public health, nursing, dentistry and veterinary science.

 

Table 4: Subject Priorities of Top 20 Productive Countries as reflected in their Cumulative Publications Output during 1997-2007

Country

Total Papers

% Share of Papers under the following Broad Fields

Physical

Sciences

Engineering

Sciences

Life

Sciences

Health

Sciences

World

15289447

27.90

29.10

23.87

29.58

USA

3584564

26.42

20.87

31.09

33.94

UK

1130827

26.12

19.34

31.94

36.67

Japan

1057233

33.72

31.94

28.37

26.77

Germany

958647

37.48

23.84

26.80

30.15

China

993717

38.97

51.60

15.12

11.25

France

691,720

37.56

24.47

28.21

29.28

Canada

525,931

29.02

23.97

29.86

29.69

Italy

510,298

34.37

21.91

28.74

34.70

Russia

355,564

63.57

35.11

17.30

3.65

Spain

372,277

36.21

21.36

31.14

32.10

Australia

337,376

27.97

18.90

31.67

34.17

India

322,947

41.07

29.59

29.68

22.06

Netherlands

291,134

28.06

19.78

30.85

37.62

South Korea

257,034

38.75

50.18

23.33

14.81

Sweden

212,529

29.50

21.48

33.12

34.57

Switzerland

207,737

35.10

19.92

29.41

32.75

Taiwan

192,106

33.52

46.99

18.29

22.47

Brazil

194,024

33.06

22.48

33.80

31.71

Poland

177,288

47.75

27.55

25.86

23.34

Belgium

157,930

31.38

22.09

30.57

35.17

 

Table 5: Broad Discipline wise Output of Top 20 Productive Countries as reflected in their Cumulative Publications Output during 1997-2007

Country

Total Papers

Count of Papers under the following Broad Fields

Physical Sciences

Engineering Sciences

Life Sciences

Health Sciences

World

15289447

4265794

4449992

3650321

4523136

USA

3584564

947174

748162

1114412

1216646

UK

1130827

295387

218693

361165

414707

Japan

1057233

356479

337640

299930

282999

Germany

958647

359270

228576

256896

289079

China

993717

387281

512773

150276

111822

France

691,720

259797

169293

195147

202527

Canada

525,931

152647

126049

157029

156137

Italy

510,298

175383

111813

146644

177075

Russia

355,564

226022

124855

61517

12992

Spain

372,277

134814

79518

115910

119485

Australia

337,376

94369

63767

106854

115274

India

322,947

132623

95555

95846

71254

Netherlands

291,134

81681

57578

89803

109515

South Korea

257,034

99594

128990

59970

38057

Sweden

212,529

62704

45654

70380

73474

Switzerland

207,737

72918

41386

61104

68029

Taiwan

192,106

64397

90280

35145

43172

Brazil

194,024

64153

43612

65572

61523

Poland

177,288

84649

48847

45853

41387

Belgium

157,930

49566

34893

48279

55548

Similarities in the research profile of India with other 19 productive countries were determined based on similarities in their global publication share by subject. In this regard, based on strength of their national publications share in the subject as compared to the world average, 20 countries were first categorized into four major groups. The following criteria were used to categorize them as strong, moderately strong, moderately week and weak countries in different broad disciplines:

(i) Strong – Countries having national publication share in the broad subject above the world average by 5% or more;
(ii) Moderately Strong – Countries having national publication share in the broad subject above the world average by 0.1% to 4.99%;
(iii) Moderately Weak – Countries having national publication share in the broad subject below the world average by 0.1% to 4.99%;
(iv) Weak – Countries having national publication share in the broad subject below the world average by 5% or more.

Eleven countries such as United States, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Canada, Australia, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Sweden and Brazil share strong to moderately strong similarities in life sciences and health sciences, but they are weak in engineering sciences. Table 6 shows similarities in their research profiles by subject.

 

 

Table 6: Countries Sharing Strong to Moderately Strong Research Profile in Life Sciences and Health Sciences

Countries

Strong

Moderately Strong

Moderately Weak

Weak

United States

Life Sciences

Health Sciences

Physical Science

Engineering Sciences

Australia, Canada, Sweden & Belgium

Life Sciences

Health Sciences, Physical Sciences

 

Engineering Sciences

Netherlands

Life Sciences, Health Sciences

Physical Sciences

 

Engineering Sciences

United Kingdom

Life Sciences, Health Sciences

 

Physical Science

Engineering Sciences

Brazil, Switzerland

Life Sciences, Physical Sciences

Health Sciences

 

Engineering Sciences

Italy, Spain

Health Sciences, Physical Sciences

Life Sciences

 

Engineering Sciences

Four countries such as Japan, Germany, France and Poland share strong to moderately strong similarities in life sciences and physical sciences, but they are weak in engineering sciences. Table 7 shows similarities in their research profiles by subject.

 

 

Table 7: Countries Sharing Strong to Moderately Strong Research Profile in Physical Sciences and Life Sciences

Countries

Strong

Moderately Strong

Moderate Weak

Weak

Germany

Physical Sciences

Life Sciences, Health Sciences

 

Engineering Sciences

Japan

Physical Sciences

Life Sciences, Engineering Sciences

Health Sciences

 

France

Physical Sciences

Life Sciences

Health Sciences, Engineering Sciences

 

Poland

Physical Sciences

Life Sciences

Engineering Sciences

Health Sciences

Five countries such as Russia, China, India, South Korea and Taiwan share strong to moderately strong similarities in physical sciences and engineering sciences, but they are weak in health sciences. Table 8 shows similarities in their research profiles by subject.

 

 

Table 8: Countries Sharing Strong to Moderately Strong Research Profile in Physical Sciences and Engineering Sciences

Countries

Strong

Moderately Strong

Moderate Weak

Weak

China, Taiwan, Russia

Engineering Sciences, Physical Sciences

 

 

Life Sciences, Health Sciences

South Korea

Engineering Sciences, Physical Sciences

 

Life Sciences

Health Sciences

India

Physical Sciences, Life Sciences

Engineering Sciences

 

Health Sciences

 

Subject Profile of India in Science and Technology

As per publications output data for 1997-2007, India’s research profile by broad disciplines emerges as follows. Physical science subjects together contributed the highest publication share (41.07%), followed by life sciences (29.68%), engineering sciences (29.59%), and health sciences (22.06%) in cumulative national publication output of India during 1997-07 (Table 9).
India’s subject profile is quite different from that of China, South Korea, and Brazil. For example, compared to India, China and South Korea each contributed the highest publication share (51.60% and 50.18%) in engineering, followed by 38.97% and 38.75% in physical sciences, 15.12% and 23.33% in life sciences , and 11.25% and 14.81% in health sciences during similar period. In contrast, Brazil emphasis equally (33.80%, 33.06% and 31.71% ) in life sciences, physical sciences and health sciences and 22.48% in engineering sciences  (Table 9).

 

Table 9: National Cumulative Publication Share of Select Developing Countries by Broad Disciplines, 1997-2007

Country

Health

Sciences

Life

Sciences

Physical

Sciences

Engineering

Sciences

India (%)

22.06

29.68

41.07

29.59

China (%)

11.25

15.12

38.97

51.60

South Korea (%)

14.81

23.33

38.75

50.18

Brazil (%)

31.71

33.80

33.06

22.48

 

High Productivity Subject Areas of Research in India

Medicine, chemistry, physics, agricultural & biological sciences, engineering, biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology and materials science are considered the high priority areas of India in S&T, each contributing publication share between 12.0% and 19.15% in the cumulative national publication output of the country during 1997-2007. Among these subjects, medicine registered the largest increase by 3.68% (from 16.57% to 20.25%), followed by 2.63% (from 12.77% to 14.31%) in biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology, 1.03% (from 12.75% to 13.78%) in engineering and 0.93% (from 11.51% to 12.44%) in materials science from 1997-99 to 2005-07. In contrast, its national publication share declined by 2.37% (from 14.55% to 12.18%) in agricultural & biological sciences and 0.87% (from 15.10% to 14.23%) in physics during the same period (Table 10).

 

Table 10: Most Productive Subject Areas – National Publication Statistics

Subject

Research Output

Publication Share (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Difference

Medicine

61849

10868

24613

19.15

16.57

20.25

3.68

Chemistry

51558

10343

19151

15.96

15.77

15.76

-0.01

Physics

45931

9904

17287

14.22

15.10

14.23

-0.87

Agricultural & Biological Sciences

43044

9542

14796

13.33

14.55

12.18

-2.37

Engineering

42376

8364

16741

13.12

12.75

13.78

1.03

Biochemistry

41249

7663

17395

12.77

11.68

14.31

2.63

Materials Science

38748

7551

15111

12.00

11.51

12.44

0.93

 

Table 11: Select Developing Countries Share in National Output in Most Productive Subject Categories

Subjects

Percentage Share of National Output, 1997-2007

India

China

Brazil

South Korea

Medicine

19.15

11.05

27.26

13.83

Chemistry

15.96

10.98

9.07

10.95

Physics

14.22

15.71

14.98

19.06

Agricultural & Biological Sciences

13.33

4.69

15.31

4.57

Engineering

13.12

29.86

10.02

25.41

Biochemistry, Genetics & Molecular Biology

12.77

8.74

13.92

15.91

Materials Sciences

12.00

14.63

7.19

16.58

 

Comparative Publications Share of Developing Countries:   In comparison to India, China contributed larger share in engineering, physics and materials science (29.86%, 15.71% and 14.63%) and so also South Korea (25.41%, 19.06% and 16.58%). India’s national publications share in these subjects were (13.12%, 14.22% and 12.0%) and Brazil (10.02%, 14.98% and 7.19%) in its cumulative national publication output during 1997-07 (Table 11). In contrast, comparatively larger publication share was devoted to medicine, chemistry and agricultural & biological sciences by Brazil (27.26%, 9.07% and 15.31%) and India (19.15%, 15.96% and 13.33%) compared to China (11.05%, 10.98% and 4.69%) and South Korea (13.83%, 10.95% and 4.57%) in cumulative national publication output during 1997-07. Larger national publication share in biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology was devoted by South Korea (15.91%) and Brazil (13.92%) as against India (12.77%) and China (8.74%) during 1997-07 (Table 11).

Share of International Collaborative Publications by Subject: The share of international collaborative publications in cumulative national subject publication output in India in most productive subject areas during 1997-07 was highest in physics (27.84%), followed by biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology (19.51%), materials science (17.29%), engineering (14.38%), chemistry (13.75%), agricultural & biological sciences (11.87%) and medicine (11.14%). India witnessed increase in its share of international collaborative publications by 5.30% (from 13.59% to 18.89%) in its publications output in materials science from 1997-99 to 2005-07, followed by 4.31% (from 8.97% to 13.28%) in medicine, 3.44% (from 10.46% to 13.90%) in agricultural & biological sciences, 2.28% (from 13.09% to 15.23%) in biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology, 2.14% (from 13.09% to 15.23%) in chemistry, 1.40% (from 27.28% to 28.68%) in physics and 1.12% (from 16.21% to 17.33%) in engineering (Table 12).

 

Table 12: Most Productive Subject Areas- International Collaboration Share

Subject

International Collaborative Research Output

International Collaborative Research Output (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Difference 1997-99 to 2005-07

Medicine

6890

975

3268

11.14

8.97

13.28

4.31

Chemistry

7091

1354

2917

13.75

13.09

15.23

2.14

Physics

12789

2702

4958

27.84

27.28

28.68

1.40

Agricultural & Biological Sciences

5108

998

2057

11.87

10.46

13.90

3.44

Engineering

6092

1356

2901

14.38

16.21

17.33

1.12

Biochemistry, Genetics & Molecular Biology

8049

1546

3906

19.51

20.17

22.45

2.28

Materials Sciences

6699

1026

2854

17.29

13.59

18.89

5.30

 

Comparative Global Publications Share by Subject:   The global publication share of India, China, Brazil, and South Korea in most productive subject areas during 1997-2007 was differing. It was 4.57% in chemistry in India, compared to 9.67% by China, 1.56% by Brazil and 2.49% by South Korea. In agricultural & biological sciences, it was 4.05% by India compared to 4.38% by China, 2.80% by Brazil and 1.10% by South Korea. In materials science, it was 3.41% by India compared to 12.80% by China, 1.23% by Brazil and 3.75% by South Korea. In physics, it was 2.73% by India compared to 9.28% by China, 1.73% by Brazil and 2.91% by South Korea. In biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology, it was 2.11% by India compared to 4.43% by China, 1.38% by Brazil and 2.09% by South Korea. In engineering, it was 1.69% by India compared to 11.86% by China, 0.78% by Brazil and 2.61% by South Korea. In medicine, it was 1.48% by India compared to 2.62% by China, 1.26% by Brazil and 0.85% by South Korea (Table 13).

India’s global publication share has increased by 1.89% (from 3.73% to 5.62%) in chemistry, followed by 1.24% (from 1.62% to 2.86%) in biochemistry, genetics & molecular biology, 1.17% (from 3.10% to 4.27%) in materials science, 0.78% (from 3.60% to 4.38%) in agricultural & biological sciences, 0.71% (from 2.61% to 3.32%) in physics, 0.75% (from 1.01% to 1.76% ) in medicine and  0.32% (from 1.71% to 2.03%) in engineering from the year 1997 to the year 2007 (Table 13).

 

Table 13: Most Productive Subject Areas- Global Publication Share of India, China and Brazil

Subject

India

China

1997

2007

1997-07

1997

2007

1997-07

Medicine

1.01

1.76

1.48

0.72

4.39

2.62

Chemistry

3.73

5.62

4.57

5.22

14.55

9.67

Physics

2.61

3.32

2.73

5.17

16.16

9.28

Agricultural & Biological Sciences

3.60

4.38

4.05

1.44

8.18

4.38

Engineering

1.71

2.03

1.69

5.18

22.57

11.86

Biochemistry, Genetics & Molecular Biology

1.62

2.86

2.11

1.57

9.33

4.43

Materials Sciences

3.10

4.27

3.41

7.09

21.42

12.80

 

Subject

Brazil

South Korea

1997

2007

1997-07

1997

2007

1997-07

Medicine

0.81

1.71

1.26

0.42

1.28

0.85

Chemistry

1.16

1.92

1.56

1.75

3.17

2.49

Physics

1.54

1.79

1.73

1.76

3.64

2.91

Agricultural & Biological Sciences

1.95

3.76

2.80

0.57

1.71

1.10

Engineering

0.70

0.78

0.78

1.99

2.88

2.61

Biochemistry, Genetics & Molecular Biology

0.85

1.76

1.38

1.15

2.76

2.09

Materials Sciences

0.85

1.27

1.23

2.55

5.51

3.75

 

Medium Productivity Subject Areas of Research in India

Earth & planetary sciences, environmental sciences, pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, chemical engineering, mathematics, immunology & microbiology, veterinary sciences and computer science are the medium productive subjective areas of Indian research, each contributing between 2.65% to 6.36% share in the cumulative publication output by India during 1997-2007. The national publication share of India witnessed increase in some of these subjects from 1997-99 to 2005-07: 1.34% (from 3.09% to 4.43%) in computer science, 0.72% (from 3.42% to 4.14%) in immunology & microbiology, 0.53% (from 6.11% to 6.64%) in pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, 0.50% (from 5.93% to 6.43%) in environmental science and 0.23% (from 5.87% to 6.10%) in chemical engineering. The decline in the national publications share was witnessed by 1.33% (from 5.71% to 4.38%) in earth & planetary sciences, 1.0% in veterinary science and 0.15% (from 4.37% to 4.22%) in mathematics from 1997-99 to 2005-07 (Table 14).

Share of International Collaborative Publications by Subject: The share of international collaborative publications in India’s cumulative publication output in medium productive subjective areas during 1997-07 was highest in mathematics (27.66%), followed by computer science (23.7%), earth & planetary science (22.24%), immunology & microbiology (19.36%), chemical engineering (13.73%), environmental sciences (10.8%), pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (9.10%) and veterinary science (4.0%). India has witnessed significant rise in international collaborative research output over time (1997-99 to 2005-07) by 6.05% (from 18.97% to 25.02%) in earth & planetary sciences, 3.29% (from 9.84% to 13.14%) in environmental sciences, 2.98% (from 11.90% to 14.88%) in chemical engineering, 2.68% (from 25.86% to 28.18%) in pharmaceutics, toxicology & pharmaceutics, 2.51% (from 25.86% to 28.18%) in mathematics, as against decrease by 10.1% (from 31.07% to 20.96%) in computer science and 0.26% (from 20.04% to 19.77%) in immunology & microbiology (Table 16).  

Comparative Global Publications Share by Subject:   India’s global publication share in medium productive subject areas of research during 1997-07 was: (i) 5.36% in India, compared to 0.86% in China, 3.17% in Brazil, and 0.81% in South Korea in veterinary science; (ii) 3.39% in India, compared to 4.50% in China, 1.47% in Brazil, and 1.88% in South Korea in pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics; (iii) 3.32% in India, compared to 5.12% in China, 1.27% in Brazil, and 1.08% in South Korea in environmental sciences; (iv) 2.77% in India, compared to 9.55% in China, 1.13% in Brazil, and 2.69% in South Korea in chemical engineering; (v) 2.31% in India, compared to 9.57% in China, 1.92% in Brazil, and 2.93% in South Korea  in mathematics; (vi) 2.27% in India, compared to 9.11% in China, 1.18% in Brazil and 0.85% in South Korea in earth & planetary sciences;  (vii) 2.22% in India, compared to 2.25% in China, 2.25% in Brazil and 2.08% in South Korea in immunology & microbiology; and (viii) 1.49% in India, compared to 10.31% in China and 0.99% in Brazil and 3.45% in South Korea in computer science (Table 17).
India’s global publication share has increased by 2.47% (from 2.62% to 5.09%) in pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, 1.74% (from 1.55% to 3.29%) in immunology & microbiology, 1.25% (from 2.67% to 3.92%) in environmental science, 0.75% (from 3.23% to 3.98%) in chemical engineering, and 0.24% (from 1.66% to 1.90%) in computer science, and against decreased by 0.13% (from 5.41% to 5.28%) in veterinary science from the year 1997 to 2007 (Table 17).

Comparative Publications Share of Developing Countries: India accounts for highest publication share (6.37%, 6.25% and 2.65%) among select four developing countries in environmental sciences, pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics and veterinary sciences. In contrast, earth & planetary sciences and immunology & microbiology account for second highest, chemical engineering the third highest, and other subjects namely mathematics and computer science the lowest publication share among the four developing countries during 1997-07. China accounts for highest national publication share(6.30%) only in earth & planetary sciences, second highest (6.55% and 7.87%)  in computer science and chemical engineering, third highest (3.19% and 5.70%) in environmental sciences and mathematics, and lowest (2.69%, 1.26% and 0.14%) in pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, immunology & microbiology, and veterinary sciences during 1997-07 among the select four Asian countries.. 

In comparison, Brazil devoted highest national publication share to  immunology & microbiology (6.48%), second highest (4.05%, 4.50%, 5.86% and 2.61%) to environmental sciences, pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, mathematics and veterinary sciences, third highest (4.17%  and 3.86%) to earth & planetary sciences and computer science, and lowest to(3.98%) to chemical engineering during 1997-07 among the select four developing countries. South Korea accounts for highest national publication share (7.14%, 6.75% and 10.17%) in chemical engineering, mathematics and computer science, second highest (4.51%) to immunology & microbiology, third highest (4.35% and 0.50%) in pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics, and veterinary sciences, and lowest (2.28% and 2.61%) in earth & planetary sciences and environmental sciences during 1997-07 among select four Asian countries (Table 15).

 

Table 14: Medium Productivity Subject Areas – National Publication Statistics

Subjects

Research Output

Publication Share (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Earth & Planetary Science

15588

3748

5323

4.83

5.71

4.38

Environmental Science

20556

3891

7811

6.36

5.93

6.43

Pharmacology

20177

4009

8067

6.25

6.11

6.64

Chemical Engineering

18869

3850

7415

5.84

5.87

6.10

Mathematics

13683

2869

5132

4.24

4.37

4.22

Immunology & Microbiology

12048

2241

5027

3.73

3.42

4.14

Computer Science

11270

2028

5381

3.49

3.09

4.43

Veterinary Science

8558

2065

2615

2.65

3.15

2.15

 

 

Table 15: Select Developing Countries Publication Share in National Output in Medium Productive Subject Categories

Subjects

Percentage Share of National Publication Output, 1997-2007

India

China

Brazil

South Korea

Earth & Planetary Science

4.83

6.30

4.17

2.28

Environmental Science

6.37

3.19

4.05

2.61

Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmaceutics

6.25

2.69

4.50

4.35

Chemical Engineering

5.84

6.55

3.98

7.14

Mathematics

4.24

5.70

5.86

6.75

Immunology & Microbiology

3.73

1.26

6.48

4.51

Computer Science

3.49

7.87

3.86

10.17

Veterinary Science

2.65

0.14

2.61

0.50

 

 

Table 16: Medium Productive Subject Areas- International Collaboration statistics

Subjects

International Collaborative Research Output

International Collaborative Research Output (%)

97-07

97-99

05-07

97-07

97-99

05-07

Difference 97-99 to 05-07

Earth & Planetary Science

3466

711

1332

22.24

18.97

25.02

6.05

Environmental Science

2220

383

1026

10.80

9.84

13.14

3.29

Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmaceutics

1836

304

828

9.10

7.58

10.26

2.68

Chemical Engineering

2590

458

1103

13.73

11.90

14.88

2.98

Mathematics

3785

742

1446

27.66

25.86

28.18

2.31

Immunology & Microbiology

2332

449

994

19.36

20.04

19.77

-0.26

Computer Science

2671

630

1128

23.70

31.07

20.96

-10.10

Veterinary Science

342

58

139

4.00

2.81

5.32

2.51

 

 

Table 17: Medium Productivity Subject Areas- Global Publication Share of India, China and Brazil

Subjects

Global Publication Share (%)

India

China

1997

2007

1997-07

1997

2007

1997-07

Earth & Planetary Science

2.42

2.47

2.27

3.04

16.21

9.11

Environmental Science

2.67

3.92

3.32

1.94

9.69

5.12

Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmaceutics

2.62

5.09

3.39

2.09

8.01

4.50

Chemical Engineering

3.23

3.98

2.77

5.33

19.20

9.55

Mathematics

2.67

2.18

2.31

4.36

16.29

9.57

Immunology & Microbiology

1.55

3.29

2.22

0.77

5.31

2.25

Computer Science

1.66

1.90

1.49

2.56

18.29

10.31

Veterinary Science

5.41

5.28

5.36

0.37

2.18

0.86

 

Subjects

Global Publication Share (%)

Brazil

South Korea

1997

2007

1997-07

1997

2007

1997-07

Earth & Planetary Science

1.05

1.31

1.18

0.49

1.18

0.85

Environmental Science

0.87

1.73

1.27

0.59

1.41

1.08

Pharmacology, Toxicology & Pharmaceutics

1.00

2.18

1.47

1.24

2.39

1.88

Chemical Engineering

1.02

1.47

1.13

1.83

3.96

2.69

Mathematics

1.61

1.67

1.92

1.62

3.47

2.93

Immunology & Microbiology

1.44

3.01

2.25

1.19

2.95

2.08

Computer Science

0.76

1.03

0.99

2.54

3.57

3.45

Veterinary Science

2.61

4.25

3.17

0.31

1.93

0.81

 

Low Productivity Subject Areas of Research in India

Energy and neurology are the two low productive subject areas contributing publications share between 1.33% and 1.84% in cumulative publication output by India during 1997-07. The national publication share in India witnessed an increase by 0.15% (from 1.20% to 1.35%) in neurology and decrease by 0.22% (from 2.09% to 1.87%) in energy from 1997-99 to 2005-07 (Table 18).

Comparative Publications Share of Developing Countries: Neurology has contributed large share in Brazil (3.73%) and South Korea (1.87%) compared to India (1.33%) and China (0.72%) during 1997-07. In contrast, energy contributed larger share in South Korea (1.88%) and China (3.29%), compared to India (1.84%) and Brazil (1.39%) during 1997-07 (Table 19).

Share of International Collaborative Publications by Subject: The share of international collaborative publications in India’s cumulative national publications output in these low productive subject areas during 1997-07 was 16.34% in neurology and 16.27% in energy. India has witnessed a significant rise in international collaborative publications of 6.29% (from 12.98% to 19.27%) in neurology as against decrease of 1.08% (from 15.88% to 14.79%) in energy from 1997-99 to 2005-07 (Table 20).

Comparative Global Publications Share by Subject:  India’s global publication share in these two subject areas are : (i) 0.91% in India compared to 13.91% in China, 13.99% in Brazil and 9.30% in South Korea in neurology and (ii) 2.02% in India, compared to 11.1% in China, 0.92% in Brazil and 1.64% in South Korea in energy. India’s global publication share has increased by 0.92% (from 0.61% to 1.53%) in neurology and decreased by 0.34% (from 2.92% to 2.58%) in energy from the year 1997 to 2007 (Table 21).

 

Table 18: Low Productivity Subject Areas – National Publication Statistics

 

Subjects

Research Output

Publication Share (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Neurology

4285

786

1635

1.33

1.20

1.35

Energy

5938

1373

2278

1.84

2.09

1.87

 

 

Table 19: Select Developing Countries Share in National Output in Low Productive Subject Categories

Subjects

Percentage Share of National Output, 1997-2007

India

China

Brazil

South Korea

Neurology

1.33

0.72

3.73

1.87

Energy

1.84

3.29

1.39

1.88

 

 

Table 20: Low Productive Subject Areas- International Collaboration Statistics

Subjects

International Collaborative Research Output

International Collaborative Research Output (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Difference 97-99 to 05-07

Neurology

700

102

315

16.34

12.98

19.27

6.29

Energy

966

218

337

16.27

15.88

14.79

-1.08

 

 

Table 21: Medium Productivity Subject Areas - Global Publication Share of India, China, Brazil and South Korea

Subjects

Global Publication Share (%)

India

China

Brazil

South Korea

1997

2007

97-07

1997

2007

97-07

1997

2007

97-07

1997

2007

97-07

Neurology

0.61

1.53

0.91

0.67

3.51

13.91

0.86

2.63

13.99

0.36

1.96

9.30

Energy

2.92

2.58

2.02

6.26

20.34

11.10

0.75

1.02

0.92

1.34

2.09

1.64

 

Least Productive Subject Areas in India

Public health nursing and dentistry are the least productive Indian subject area contributing each less than 1% publication share in cumulative publication output during 1997-07. India’s publication share has increased by 0.35% (from 0.21% to 0.56%) in dentistry, 0.23% (from 0.40% to 0.63) in public health and by 0.20%(from 0.09% to 0.29%) in nursing from 1997-99 to 2005-07 (Table 22).

Comparative Publications Share of Developing Countries:Nursing and public health contributed comparative largest share in South Korea (1.05% and 2.02%) and India (0.30% and 73%) as against china (0.55% and 0.65%) and Brazil (0.44% and 0.56%) during 1997-07. In contrast, dentistry find largest share in Brazil (5.19%) and India (1.36%) compared to South Korea (1.06%) and China (0.92%) during 1997-07 (Table 23).

Share of International Collaborative Publications by Subject: The share of international collaborative publications in India’s cumulative national publication output in three least productive subject areas during 1997-07 was highest in nursing (25.04%), followed by  public health (16.67%) and dentistry (6.54%). The India’s international collaborative publications share has increased by 5.53% (from 13.69% to 19.22%) in public health and by 2.98% (from 23.73% to 26.70%) in nursing, as against decrease by 6.96% (from 12.50% to 5.54%) in dentistry from 1997-99 to 2005-07 (Table 24).

Comparative Global Publications Share by Subject:   India’s global publication share in least productive subject areas of research during 1997-07 was: (i) 0.73% in India, compared to 0.65% in China, 0.56% in Brazil, and 1.42% in South Korea in public health; (ii) 1.36% in India, compared to 0.92% in China, 5.19% in Brazil and 1.06% in South Korea in dentistry and (iii) 0.30% in India, compared to 0.55% in China, 0.44% in Brazil and 0.38% in South Korea in nursing (Table 25).

 

Table 22: Least Productivity Subject Areas – National Publication Statistics

Subjects

Research Output

Publication Share (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Public Health

1752

263

765

0.54

0.40

0.63

Dentistry

1132

136

686

0.35

0.21

0.56

Nursing

607

59

352

0.19

0.09

0.29

 

 

Table 23: Select Developing Countries Share in National Output in Least Productive Subject Categories

Subjects

Percentage Share of National Output, 1997-2007

India

China

Brazil

South Korea

Public Health

0.54

0.16

0.70

1.33

Dentistry

0.35

0.08

2.23

0.34

Nursing

0.19

0.11

0.46

0.29

 

 

Table 24: Least Productive Subject Areas - International Collaboration Statistics

Subjects

International Collaborative Research Output

International Collaborative Research Output (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

Difference 97-99 to 05-07

Public Health

292

36

147

16.67

13.69

19.22

5.53

Dentistry

74

17

38

6.54

12.50

5.54

-6.96

Nursing

152

14

94

25.04

23.73

26.70

2.98

 

 

Table 25: Least Productivity Subject Areas- Global Publication Share  of India, China and Brazil

Subjects

India

China

Brazil

South Korea

1997

2007

97-07

1997

2007

97-07

1997

2007

97-07

1997

2007

97-07

Public Health

0.45

1.07

0.73

0.24

1.14

0.65

0.20

1.16

0.56

0.71

2.02

1.42

Dentistry

0.82

2.66

1.36

0.48

1.86

0.92

1.25

9.11

5.19

0.23

1.51

1.06

Nursing

0.11

0.48

0.30

0.14

1.39

0.55

0.08

1.09

0.44

0.05

1.05

0.38

 

India’s Research Output by Geographical Regions

High Productivity States:  Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Delhi, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are the top 8 high productivity states in terms of publications output and share. Together these eight states accounted for approximately 89% of the India’s total cumulated publications output during 1997-2007.  Individually, their publication’s share ranged from 3.6% to 16.3% in India’s total cumulative publication output. Karnataka’s contribution by way of national publications share increased by 2.08% from 1997-99 to 2005-07. Tamil Nadu witnessed increase by 1.45%, Andhra Pradesh by 0.41%, Delhi by 0.40% and Kerala by .31% during similar period. Uttar Pradesh witnessed decline in its national publications share by 0.14%, followed by West Bengal (0.13%) and Maharashtra (0.10%). In terms of publication growth rate from 1997-99 to 2004-06, the highest (119.65%) was achieved by Karnataka, followed by Tamil Nadu (102.09%), Kerala (101.70%), Andhra Pradesh (95.96%), Delhi (90.83%), West Bengal (82.97%), Uttar Pradesh (82.90%) and Maharashtra (73.05%) (Table 26).

Medium Productivity States:  Gujarat, Chandigarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and Punjab are the seven medium productivity states. Together these states accounted for approximately 22.78% of the India’s total cumulated publications output during 1997-2007. Their individual publication’s share ranged from 2.32% to 3.47% in India’s total publications output. Chandigarh’s contribution by way of national publications share increased by 0.60% from 1966-98 to 2004-06.   Uttarkhand showed 0.46% increase, Kerala by 0.22%, and Rajasthan by 0.20%. Punjab showed decline in its national publications share by 0.26%, followed by Haryana (0.20%), Madhya Pradesh (0.18%), and Gujarat (0.09%). In terms of publication growth rate from 1996-98 to 2004-06, the highest (113.11%) was achieved by Chandigarh, followed by Punjab (112.67%), Haryana (109.02%), Rajasthan (85.96%), Kerala (82.44%), Gujarat (67.15%), Madhya Pradesh (59.22%), and Haryana (58.57%) (Table 26).

Low Productivity States:    Orissa, Assam, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh are the five low productivity states and together they accounted for approximately 5.66% of the India’s total cumulated publications output during 1997-2007. Their publication’s share ranged from 0.96% to 1.37% in India’s total research output. Assam’s contribution by way of national publications share increased by 0.30% from 1997-99 to 2005-07. Jharkhand witnessed (0.24%) increase and J&K (0.15%). Himachal Pradesh witnessed decline of 0.11% and Orissa witnessed decline of 0.31%. In terms of publication growth rate from 1997-99 to 2005-07, the highest (129.90%) was achieved by Jharkhand , followed by Assam (129.01%), followed by J & K (114.07%), Himachal Pradesh (66.30%), and Orissa (42.43%) (Table 26).

 

Table 26: Geographical Distribution of Indian Research Output

State Name

Publications Outputs

Publications Outputs (%)

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

1997-07

1997-99

2005-07

High productivity States in Science and Technology

Tamil Nadu

52650

10452

21122

16.30

15.93

17.38

Maharashtra

48066

9982

17274

14.88

15.22

14.22

Delhi

43560

8661

16528

13.49

13.20

13.60

Karnataka

39889

7358

16162

12.35

11.22

13.30

West Bengal

35381

7402

13544

10.96

11.28

11.15

Uttar Pradesh

34221

7235

13233

10.60

11.03

10.89

Andhra Pradesh

23529

4727

9263

7.29

7.21

7.62

Kerala

11619

2293

4625

3.60

3.50

3.81

Medium productivity States in Science and Technology

Gujarat

10837

2274

4082

3.36

3.47

3.36

Punjab

10290

1833

4319

3.19

2.79

3.55

Chandigarh

9452

1790

3635

2.93

2.73

2.99

Rajasthan

9204

1736

3541

2.85

2.65

2.91

Madhya Pradesh

9167

1999

3520

2.84

3.05

2.90

Uttarakhand

7896

1422

3371

2.44

2.17

2.77

Haryana

7548

1562

2842

2.34

2.38

2.34

Low productivity States in Science and Technology

Assam

4423

810

1855

1.37

1.23

1.53

Orissa

3755

872

1242

1.16

1.33

1.02

Jharkhand

3529

632

1453

1.09

0.96

1.20

Jammu and Kashmir

3466

661

1415

1.07

1.01

1.16

Himachal Pradesh

3141

718

1194

0.97

1.09

0.98

Least productivity States in Science and Technology

Chhattisgarh

3017

614

1222

0.93

0.94

1.01

Pondicherry

2571

401

1010

0.80

0.61

0.83

Bihar

2051

582

525

0.64

0.89

0.43

Goa

1646

335

712

0.51

0.51

0.59

Meghalaya

1176

301

402

0.36

0.46

0.33

Manipur

678

102

338

0.21

0.16

0.28

Arunachal Pradesh

525

108

210

0.16

0.16

0.17

Tripura

241

60

102

0.07

0.09

0.08

Sikkim

217

33

114

0.07

0.05

0.09

Nagaland

188

9

99

0.06

0.01

0.08

Mizoram

134

9

69

0.04

0.01

0.06

Andaman and Nicobar

133

18

60

0.04

0.03

0.05

Lakshadweep

5

2

2

0.00

0.00

0.00

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

3

1

2

0.00

0.00

0.00

Daman and Diu

2

0

2

0.00

0.00

0.00

Total

322958

65602

121519

322958

65602

121519

 

S&T Funding Agencies of India & Their Impact

Bulk of R&D research in India is state funded and controlled through various funding agencies. Funding for research is regulated by these agencies as per mandate assigned to each by the government of India. The list of funding agencies is shown in Table 27.

MHRD-IITs lead in publications productivity in science and technology. Compared to other funding agencies, their publications output was the highest (36501 papers in 11 years) as seen from publications output data for India for 1997-07. This is followed by CSIR (26976 papers), DAE (17524), MHFW (13271), DST (11276), ICAR (8430), DRDO (4763), ICMR (4375), DOS (2796), and DBT (1726).
In terms of publications impact as measured through citations per papers, DBT leads the list of funding agencies with 4.09 citations per paper on an average, followed by DAE (3.64), and others as shown in Table 27.

 

Table 27: Impact of National Funding Agencies in India on R&D Research, 1997-07

Funding Agencies

1997-01

2002-07

1997-07

Papers

Citations

ACPP

Papers

Citations

ACPP

Papers

Citations

ACPP

Department of Biotechnology (DBT)

608

2214

3.64

928

4848

5.22

1726

7062

4.09

Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)

6277

26874

4.28

9072

36955

4.07

17524

63829

3.64

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

8904

27401

3.08

13987

59871

4.28

26976

87272

3.24

Department of Science and Technology (DST)

3916

13356

3.41

5752

22714

3.95

11376

36070

3.17

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)

1445

4609

3.19

2344

11593

4.95

4375

16202

2.8

Department of Space (DOS)

1169

3483

2.98

1497

3729

2.49

2976

7212

2.42

Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO)

1575

2866

1.82

2562

6311

2.46

4763

11102

2.33

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MHFW)

4520

10023

2.22

6915

19616

2.84

13271

29639

2.23

Ministry of Human Resource Development-Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)

11449

27952

2.44

19317

52153

2.7

36501

80105

2.19

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

2930

2959

1.01

4240

6473

1.53

8430

9432

1.12

Note: Three Years, Two Years and One Year citation window has been used for papers published for 1997-04, 2005, and 2006  respectively (ACPP – Average Citations per Paper)

 

High Productivity S&T Institutions in India

Based on publications output data for India in science and technology for 1997-2007, a total of 36 institutions were identified as high productive ones publishing more than 800 papers in the country. Category wise these include:

(i)  Nine institutes of national importance (Indian Institute of Science (IISc-BANG), Indian Statistical Institute (ISI-KOLK), All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS-DELH), Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Chennai , Bombay, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Roorkee (IIT-DELH, IIT-MADR, IIT-BOMB, IIT-KANP, IIT-KHAR and IIT-ROOR),

(ii) Ten research institutes (Bhabha Atomic Research Institute, Mumbai (BARC-MUMB), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (TIFR-MUMB), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology , Hyderabad (IICT-HYDE), National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (NCL-PUNE), Indian Association of Cultivation Science, Kolkata (IACS-KOLK), Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (SINP-KOLK), Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi (IARI-DELH),  Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow (CDRI-LUCK), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar  and National Physics Laboratory, Delhi (NPL-DELH)) and

(iii) Seventeen universities (University of Delhi, Delhi (DU), Calcutta University, Kolkata (CALCUNIV), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (BHUVARA), Hyderabad University, Hyderabad (HYDEUNIV), Jadavpur University, Kolkata (JADAUNIV), Madras University, Chennai (MADRUNIV), Anna University, Chennai (ANNAUNIV), Panjab University, Chandigarh (PANJUNIV), University of Pune,  Pune (PUNEUNIV), University of Bombay, Mumbai (BOMBUNIV), Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi (JNU-DELH), Rajasthan University, Jaipur (RAJAUNIV), Osmania University, Hyderabad (OSMAUNIV), Mysore University , Mysore (MYSOUNIV), Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (PAU-LUDH), Bangalore University, Bangalore (BANGUNIV) and Aligarh Muslim University , Aligarh (ALIGUNIV)

These top 36 institutions together contributed 45.98% papers to the total cumulative research output by India during 1997-2007. These institutions individually published between 881 and 12856 papers in 11 years, with an average output of 4243 papers per institution.  Of these, 13 institutions each contributed publications output above the 36-institutions average (4243 papers per institution) during 1997-2007. The publication share of these 36 institutions to the total output by India showed decline over time from 46.19% in 1997-01 to 45.85% in 2002-06 (Table 28).

These 36 institutions witnessed average growth in their publications output over time (1997-01 to 2002-07) by 48.52%. Of these, 17 institutions showed growth rate higher than the 36-institutions-average. These are: JNCASR-BANG with a growth rate of 155.33% from 1997-2001 to 2002-2007, followed by IICT-HYDE (90.39%), ALIGUNIV (88.62%), IIT-MUMB (86.77%), RAJAUNIV (85.10%), ANNAUNIV (81.54%), IIT-ROOR (77.63%), IIT-DELH (76.83%), CDRI-LUCK (65.68%), PANJUNIV (65.02%), IIT-KANP (58.62%), PUNEUNIV (57.32%), BOMBUNIV (55.42%), JADAUNIV (54.94%), IIT-KHAR (53.88%), AIIMS-DELH (52.87%), and IARI-DELH (52.09%) (Table 28).

The average h-index of these 36 institutions during 1997-07 was 43.69.  Of these, 20 institutions showed h-index higher than the 36-instituions average. These are: IISc-BANG with h-index of 82, followed by TIFR-MUMB (76), IIT-KANP (59), NCL-PUNE (59), DU (57), ISI-KOLK (56), HYDEUNIV (55), IIT-DELH (52), IIT-MADR (51), IIT-BOMB (51), PANJUNIV (51), AIIMS-DELH (50), IIT-KHAR (50), BARC-MUMB (50), IICT-HYDE (50), CALCUNIV (49), PUNEUNIV (47), IACS-KOLK (46), JADAUNIV (45), BHUVARA (44) .(Table 28).

The average citation per paper recorded by these institutions during 1997-07 was 2.64. Of these, 12 institutions showed citations performance above 36- institutions citations average. These are: TIFR-MUMB, with 6.43 citations per paper, followed by NCL-PUNE (4.77), IICT-HYDE (4.43), PANJUNIV (3.99), IACS-KOLK (3.74), PUNEUNIV (3.52), IISC-BANG (3.43), IIT-KANP (3.04), BARC-MUMB (2.87), ISI-KOLK (2.87), JAWAUNIV (2.66), and DELHUNIV (2.51). These institutions witnessed rise/decline in their average citation rate over time from 1997-2001 to 2002-06 (Table 29).

The average share of the international collaborative papers of these 36 institutions during 1997-07 was 18.28 %. Only 15 out of 36 institutions have shown higher share of international collaboration papers than the average share of 35 institutions. TIFR-MUMB recorded 45.01% share of international collaborative papers, followed by PUNEUNIV (27.39), SINP-KOLK (26.75), PANJUNIV (26.63), IACS-KOLK (24.14), ISI-KOLK (23.57), MYSOUNIV (23.28), IIT-KANP (22.85), IIT-MUMB (22.27), IISC-BANG (21.64), ANNAUNIV (21.43), MADRUNIV (20.54), NPL-DELH (19.33), DU-DELH (18.69), IIT-CHEN (18.31). These institutions witnessed rise/decline in their share of international collaborative papers  from 1997-2001 to 2002-07 (Table 30).

 

 

Table 28: Top 36 Productive Institutions in S&T in India, 1997-2007

Affiliation

1997-2007

Total Papers

TP

TC

ACPP

h-index

1997 - 2001

2002 - 2007

Growth rate from 97 - 01 to 02 - 07

Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore

12856

44081

3.43

82

4542

6676

46.98

Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi

4993

9985

2

44

2141

2192

2.38

University of Delhi (DU), Delhi

9664

24237

2.51

57

3208

5054

57.54

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi

7893

19014

2.41

50

2701

4129

52.87

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi

7604

15898

2.09

52

2344

4145

76.83

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Mumbai

6799

17154

2.52

51

2003

3741

43.35

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Chennai

6678

12986

1.94

51

2322

3338

53.88

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur

6565

15157

2.31

50

2190

3370

86.77

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai

6059

17385

2.87

50

2217

3178

43.76

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur

5996

18246

3.04

59

1989

3155

58.62

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research  (TIFR), Mumbai

4954

31870

6.43

76

2011

2407

19.69

University of Hyderabad (UOHYD), Hyderabad

4716

14160

3

55

1702

2356

38.43

Jadavpur University (JU), Kolkata

4492

10541

2.35

45

1507

2335

46.72

Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), Kolkata

4158

11923

2.87

56

1464

2148

65.02

Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad

4013

17775

4.43

50

1166

2220

12.88

National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune

3987

19023

4.77

59

1489

2023

90.39

University of Madras (UNOM), Chennai

3715

8125

2.19

38

1537

1735

35.86

Anna University, Chennai

3429

6626

1.93

34

1024

1859

81.54

Indian Association for Cultivation of Science (IACS),Kolkata

3095

11590

3.74

46

1186

1493

25.89

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT),  Roorkee

3091

6386

2.07

18

912

1620

57.32

University of  Pune (UoP), Pune

2870

10103

3.52

47

949

1493

88.62

Panjab University (PU), Chandigarh

2760

11004

3.99

51

889

1467

77.63

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Aligarh

2387

4090

1.71

32

703

1326

52.28

University of Mumbai (MU), Mumbai

2331

5389

2.31

36

803

1248

55.42

Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP),Kolkata

2030

6080

3

37

818

959

98.92

Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), Delhi

2013

5363

2.66

36

779

1022

65.68

Rajasthan University, Jaipur

1938

4753

2.45

29

584

1081

31.19

Indian Agricultural Research Institute  (IARI), Delhi

1928

3193

1.66

29

679

1034

31.95

Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow

1712

4255

2.49

30

542

898

120

National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Delhi

1661

3603

2.17

29

649

774

85.1

Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar

1645

1574

0.96

17

717

711

-0.84

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh

865

1495

1.73

20

207

527

54.94

Andhra University, Hyderabad

1462

2084

1.43

23

554

731

17.24

Karnataka University, Dharwad

1297

2968

2.29

31

372

740

19.26

Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam

919

1126

1.23

18

197

503

154.59

Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore

824

3607

4.38

34

185

407

155.33

 

 

Table 29: Citations Profile of Top Productions Institutions in S&T in India, 1997-2007

Affiliation

1997-01

2002-07

1997-07

Papers

Citation

ACPP

Papers

Citation

ACPP

Papers

Citation

ACPP

Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore

4542

18832

4.15

6676

25249

3.78

12856

44081

3.43

University of Delhi (DU), Delhi

3208

8338

2.60

5054

15899

3.15

9664

24237

2.51

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS),Delhi

2701

6265

2.32

4129

12749

3.09

7893

19014

2.41

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), New Delhi

2344

5240

2.24

4145

10658

2.57

7604

15898

2.09

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur

2190

4937

2.25

3370

10220

3.03

6565

15157

2.31

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai

2217

6523

2.94

3178

10862

3.42

6059

17385

2.87

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Chennai

2322

5054

2.18

3338

7932

2.38

6678

12986

1.94

Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Mumbai

2003